Compression fractures are a common type of spinal fracture characterized by the collapse or compression of vertebral bones in the spine. They typically occur in the vertebrae of the lower back (lumbar spine) or the mid-back (thoracic spine).
Compression fractures can cause significant pain, limited mobility, and impact daily activities.
In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for compression fractures.
Causes of Compression Fractures
Compression fractures can occur due to various reasons, including:
The most common cause of compression fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by low bone density and increased bone fragility. Weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis makes them more susceptible to fractures, even with minimal trauma or stress.
Trauma or Injury
Compression fractures can also result from traumatic events, such as a fall, sports injury, or motor vehicle accident. These fractures may occur in individuals with normal bone density, but they are more common in older adults due to age-related changes in bone strength.
Cancer or Tumors
In some cases, compression fractures can be caused by underlying cancerous tumors that weaken the vertebrae, making them more susceptible to collapse.
Symptoms of Compression Fractures
The symptoms of a compression fracture may vary depending on the severity and location of the fracture. Common signs and symptoms include:
Compression fractures often cause sudden and severe back pain, typically localized to the site of the fracture. The pain may worsen with movement, standing, walking, or coughing.
Loss of Height
Compression fractures can result in a loss of height, as the collapsed vertebrae can cause the spine to shorten.
Severe or multiple compression fractures can lead to an abnormal forward curvature of the spine, resulting in a stooped or hunched posture known as kyphosis.
Compression fractures can restrict movement and flexibility in the spine, leading to difficulties in bending, twisting, or performing daily activities.
In rare cases, if the fracture compresses spinal nerves or the spinal cord, it can cause neurological symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or changes in bowel or bladder function.
Diagnosis of Compression Fractures
If a compression fracture is suspected, a healthcare professional will typically perform a thorough evaluation, which may include:
Medical History Assessment
The doctor will inquire about symptoms, any recent injuries, medical conditions, or risk factors for osteoporosis.
The doctor will examine the spine for signs of tenderness, deformity, loss of height, or abnormal curvature. They may also assess neurological function if indicated.
X-rays are commonly used to visualize compression fractures and assess the severity. In some cases, additional imaging tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans may be ordered to evaluate the extent of the fracture and assess for underlying causes.
Treatment of Compression Fractures
The treatment approach for compression fractures depends on the severity of the fracture, the underlying cause, and individual patient factors. Treatment options may include:
Initially, over-the-counter pain medications or prescribed pain relievers may be recommended to alleviate discomfort associated with compression fractures.
Rest and Activity Modification
Rest and limiting activities that exacerbate pain or strain on the spine are often advised initially. Gradual return to normal activities is recommended under medical guidance.
In some cases, a back brace or orthotic device may be prescribed to provide support and stability to the spine, promoting healing and pain relief.
Physical therapy plays a crucial role in the rehabilitation of compression fractures. Therapeutic exercises can help strengthen the core muscles, improve posture, enhance flexibility, and promote overall spine health.
If osteoporosis is the underlying cause of the compression fracture, treatment may include medications to manage and prevent further bone loss. Lifestyle modifications such as a calcium-rich diet, vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing exercises, and fall prevention strategies may also be recommended.
In severe cases, when conservative treatments fail or if there is significant spinal instability or neurological compromise, surgical interventions such as vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty may be considered. These procedures involve injecting bone cement or inserting balloons into the collapsed vertebrae to restore height and stability.
It is important to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan for compression fractures. Early intervention, proper management, and addressing underlying causes are essential in relieving pain, improving mobility, preventing further fractures, and promoting spinal health.